Journal of Geophysical Research C: Oceans
A sigma coordinate, free surface numerical model with turbulence dynamics has been implemented for the Atlantic Ocean and the Greenland Sea, from 80°S to 80°N. It is driven at the surface by monthly mean sea surface temperature and wind stress climatologies and is executed for 30 years. This is the first time that a model of this type, previously used mostly for coastal and regional simulations, has been implemented for the entire Atlantic Ocean and run for a long period of time. The model horizontal circulation, thermohaline overturning circulation, and meridional heat fluxes are described; the results are compared with observations and the results of other models. The model produces intense deep western boundary currents and complicated gyre structures associated with small-scale topographic variations. The meridional. overturning circulation consists of about 14 Sv (1 Sv = 106 m3 s-1) of southward flowing deep water mass crossing the equator and a northward heat flux with a maximum value of more than 1 PW (1015 W). Although the maximum meridional heat flux is comparable to estimates obtained from observations, the amplitude of the seasonal variations of northward heat flux across 26°N is underestimated in comparison with observations; it is similar to that obtained by other models.
Original Publication Citation
Ezer, T., & Mellor, G.L. (1997). Simulations of the Atlantic Ocean with a free surface sigma coordinate ocean model. Journal of Geophysical Research C: Oceans, 102(C7), 15647-15657. doi: 10.1029/97JC00984
Ezer, Tal and Mellor, George L., "Simulations of the Atlantic Ocean with a Free Surface Sigma Coordinate Ocean Model" (1997). CCPO Publications. 118.
0000-0002-2018-6071 (Ezer), 0000-0002-3525-1841 (Mellor)