Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine
Purpose: Insomnia is a substantive primary care issue that leads to adverse outcomes. These can be improved by addressing factors that accentuate insomnia severity. Accordingly, this study identifies correlates of insomnia severity and determines whether these relationships vary with sociodemographic attributes.
Methods: This correlational cross-sectional study was conducted in a hospital-sponsored primary care clinic and 2 urban, academic family practice centers. Participants consisted of 236 patients 18 years old or older with clinically significant insomnia (Insomnia Severity Index scores of 7 or more). Surveys instruments included the Insomnia Severity Index, SF-8 (Medical Outcomes Study SF-8 global health status measure), CES-D (Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale), DBAS (Dysfunctional Beliefs about Sleep scale), SE-S (Self-Efficacy for Sleep Scale), and a researcher-designed demographic survey. Analytic techniques included descriptive statistics to characterize the study sample, Pearson or Spearman Correlation Coefficients to examine individual associations with insomnia severity, and step-wise linear regression to identify net predictors.
Results: Insomnia severity was significantly correlated with health status, depression, self-efficacy, and dysfunctional beliefs (P < .001) but not with sociodemographic attributes. Linear regression demonstrated insomnia severity was best predicted by low self-efficacy and high depression scores.
Discussion: These findings indicate that clinicians treating insomnia should not only manage comorbid depression but also facilitate self-efficacy for sleep-inducing behavioral change.
Original Publication Citation
Bluestein, D., Rutledge, C.M., & Healey, A.C. (2010). Psychosocial correlates of insomnia severity in primary care. Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine, 23(2), 204-211. doi: 10.3122/jabfm.2010.02.090179
Bluestein, Daniel; Rutledge, Carolyn M.; and Healey, Amanda C., "Psychosocial Correlates of Insomnia Severity in Primary Care" (2010). Nursing Faculty Publications. 4.