Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Scientific Reports




11767 (11 pp.)




Irreversible electroporation (IRE) as a non-thermal tumor ablation technology has been studied for the treatment of pancreatic carcinoma and has shown a significant survival benefit. We discovered that moderate heating (MH) at 43°C for 1-2 minutes significantly enhanced ex vivo IRE tumor ablation of Pan02 cells by 5.67-fold at 750 V/cm and by 1.67-fold at 1500 V/cm. This amount of heating alone did not cause cell death. An integrated IRE system with controllable laser heating and tumor impedance monitoring was developed to treat mouse ectopic pancreatic cancer. With this novel IRE system, we were able to heat and maintain the temperature of a targeted tumor area at 42°C during IRE treatment. Pre-heating the tumor greatly reduced the impedance of tumor and its fluctuation. Most importantly, MHIRE has been demonstrated to significantly extend median survival and achieve a high rate of complete tumor regression. Median survival was 43, 46 and 84 days, for control, IRE with 100 μs, 1 Hz, 90 pulses and electric fields 2000-2500 V/cm and MHIRE treatment respectively. 55.6% of tumor-bearing mice treated with MHIRE were tumor-free, whereas complete tumor regression was not observed in the control and IRE treatment groups.


This article is open access under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.


Original Publication Citation

Edelblute, C. M., Hornef, J., Burcus, N. I., Norman, T., Beebe, S. J., Schoenbach, K., . . . Guo, S. Q. (2017). Controllable moderate heating enhances the therapeutic efficacy of irreversible electroporation for pancreatic cancer. Scientific Reports, 7, 11767. doi:10.1038/s41598-017-12227-4


0000-0002-6075-9452 (Beebe), 0000-0002-7280-7888 (Guo)