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Nucleic Acids Research










Mammalian cells express a variety of nucleic acid sensors as one of the first lines of defense against infection. Despite extensive progress in the study of sensor signaling pathways during the last decade, the detailed mechanisms remain unclear. In our previous studies, we reported increased type I interferon expression and the upregulation of several proposed cytosolic DNA sensors after transfection of several tumor cell types with plasmid DNA (pDNA). In the present study, we sought to reveal the early events in the cytosolic sensing of this nucleic acid in a myoblast cell line. We demonstrated that DNA-dependent activator of interferon regulatory factors/Z-DNA binding protein 1 (DAI/ZBP1) bound plasmid DNA in the cytosol within 15 minutes of transfection and at consistent levels for 4 h. Interferon activated gene 204 protein (p204) and DEAH box helicase 9 (DHX9) also bound pDNA, peaking 15 and 30 min respectively. Plasmid DNA was not detectably bound by DEAD box helicase 60 (DDX60) protein, despite a similar level of mRNA upregulation to DAI/ZBP1, or by cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS), despite its presence in the cell cytosol. Taken together, these results indicate several DNA sensors may participate and cooperate in the complex process of cytosolic DNA sensing.


The Author(s) 2019. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

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Original Publication Citation

Semenova, N., Bosnjak, M., Markelc, B., Znidar, K., Cemazar, M., & Heller, L. (2019). Multiple cytosolic DNA sensors bind plasmid DNA after transfection. Nucleic Acids Research, 47(19), 10235-10246. doi:10.1093/nar/gkz768