Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title



Online Ahead of print


9 pp.




Introduction: A method that utilizes nanosecond bipolar cancellation (BPC) near a quadrupole electrodes to suppress a biological response but cancels the distal BPC at the quadrupole center, i.e., cancellation of cancellation (CANCAN), may allow for a remote focused stimulation at the quadrupole center.

Objectives: The primary object of this study was to outline the requirement of the CANCAN implementation and select an effective quadrupole configuration.

Results: We have studied three quadrupole electrode configurations, a rod quadrupole, a plate quadrupole (Plate-Q), and a resistor quadrupole. The pulse shapes of electric fields include monophasic pulses, cancellation pulses, and additive pulses. The Plate-Q appears the best for CANCAN as it shows the highest percentage of cancellation pulses among all pulse shapes, allowing for the best spatial focus.

Conclusion: For the region of interest characterized in the Plate-Q configuration, the maximum magnitude of bipolar field is twice as that of the unipolar field, which allows for the CANCAN demonstration that involves membrane electropermeabilization.


© 2020 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Included with the written permission of the publisher.

Original Publication Citation

Xiao, S., Yamada, R., & Zhou, C. (2020). Quadrupoles for remote electrostimulation incorporating bipolar cancellation. Bioelectricity, Online Ahead of Print.

Available for download on Wednesday, July 21, 2021