Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Scientific Reports




23745 (1-13)




Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are byproducts of tumor cells treated with Nano-Pulse Stimulation (NPS). Recently, ROS have been suggested as a contributing factor in immunogenic cell death and T cell-mediated immunity. This research further investigated the role of NPS induced ROS in antitumor immunity. ROS production in 4T1-luc breast cancer cells was characterized using three detection reagents, namely, Amplex Red, MitoSox Red, and Dihydroethidium. The efficiency of ROS quenching was evaluated in the presence or absence of ROS scavengers and/or antioxidants. The immunogenicity of NPS treated tumor cells was assessed by ex vivo dendritic cell activation, in vivo vaccination assay and in situ vaccination with NPS tumor ablation. We found that NPS treatment enhanced the immunogenicity of 4T1-luc mouse mammary tumor, resulted in a potent in situ vaccination protection and induced long-term T cell immunity. ROS production derived from NPS treated breast cancer cells was an electric pulse dose-dependent phenomenon. Noticeably, the dynamic pattern of hydrogen peroxide production was different from that of superoxide production. Interestingly, regardless of NPS treatment, different ROS scavengers could either block or promote ROS production and stimulate or inhibit tumor cell growth. The activation of dendritic cells was not influenced by blocking ROS generation. The results from in vivo vaccination with NPS treated cancer cells suggests that ROS generation was not a prerequisite for immune protection.


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Original Publication Citation

Siqi, G., Niculina, I. B., Megan, S., Yu, J., & Iurii, S. (2021). The role of reactive oxygen species in the immunity induced by nano-pulse stimulation. Scientific Reports, 11, 1-13, Article 23745.


0000-0002-7280-7888 (Guo), 0000-0002-0302-1355 (Semenov)