Date of Award

Fall 1994

Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Biological Sciences



Committee Director

Lloyd Wolfinbarger, Jr.

Committee Member

Barbara Hargrave

Committee Member

Edgar Stillwell

Call Number for Print

Special Collections LD4331.B52 L44


The AIDS ·pandemic has directed various research endeavors towards finding an appropriate method for eliminating all potentially infectious material within bone allografts before implantation into a recipient. To that effect, Panavirocide was conceived by Medicine and Applied Science·s, Inc. This compound, in which three nonionic surfactants serve as the active agents, has been shown to inactivate HIV-1 particles within blood and blood products. Because Panavirocide has never been used with allografts, the purpose of the present research was to characterize the nonionic surfactants for the putative alteration of the formulation by determining the critical micelle concentration values and to determine the effects of Panavirocide on mammalian fibroblasts.

Modification of a protocol proposed by Vulliez-Le Normand and. Eisele (1993) allowed the determination of the critical micelle concentration values. These calculated values of 0.120 ± 0.026 mM for Brij 35, 0.062 ± 0.008 mM for Nonoxynol 9, and 0.234 ± o.oos mM for Nonidet P40 corresponded quite well with the literature-derived values of 0.092 mM, 0.0812 mM, and 0.29 mM, respectively.

Using in vitro proliferation assays, the toxicity level was determined to be between 0.00lX and 0.005X, diluted from a lX stock solution of Panavirocide. Furthermore, as determined through the proliferation assays and by morphological changes, demineralized bone matrix, a commonly used allograft material, treated with Panavirocide did not adversely affect the human dermal fibroblasts used in this study.


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