Experimental Biology and Medicine
Toxin-antitoxin systems are encoded by bacteria and archaea to enable an immediate response to environmental stresses, including antibiotics and the host immune response. During normal conditions, the antitoxin components prevent toxins from interfering with metabolism and arresting growth; however, toxin activation enables microbes to remain dormant through unfavorable conditions that might continue over millions of years. Intense investigations have revealed a multitude of mechanisms for both regulation and activation of toxin-antitoxin systems, which are abundant in pathogenic microorganisms. This minireview provides an overview of the current knowledge regarding type II toxin-antitoxin systems along with their clinical and environmental implications.
Original Publication Citation
Coussens, N. P., & Daines, D. A. (2016). Wake me when it's over - Bacterial toxin-antitoxin proteins and induced dormancy. Experimental Biology and Medicine, 241(12), 1332-1342. doi:10.1177/1535370216651938
Coussens, Nathan P. and Daines, Dayle A., "Wake Me When It's Over- Bacterial Toxin-Antitoxin Proteins and Induced Dormancy" (2016). Biological Sciences Faculty Publications. 244.