e0195760 (14 pages)
Large marine protected areas (LMPAs) are increasingly being established and have a high profile in marine conservation. LMPAs are expected to achieve multiple objectives, and because of their size are postulated to avoid trade-offs that are common in smaller MPAs. However, evaluations across multiple outcomes are lacking. We used a systematic approach to code several social and ecological outcomes of 12 LMPAs. We found evidence of three types of trade-offs: trade-offs between different ecological resources (supply trade-offs); trade-offs between ecological resource conditions and the well-being of resource users (supply-demand trade-offs); and trade-offs between the well-being outcomes of different resource users (demand trade-offs). We also found several divergent outcomes that were attributed to influences beyond the scope of the LMPA. We suggest that despite their size, trade-offs can develop in LMPAs and should be considered in planning and design. LMPAs may improve their performance across multiple social and ecological objectives if integrated with larger-scale conservation efforts. © 2018 Davies et al.
Original Publication Citation
Davies, T. E., Epstein, G., Aguilera, S. E., Brooks, C. M., Cox, M., Evans, L. S., . . . Ban, N. C. (2018). Assessing trade-offs in large marine protected areas. PloS One, 13(4), e0195760. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0195760
Davies, Tammy E.; Epstein, Graham; Aguilera, Stacy E.; Brooks, Cassandra M.; Cox, Michael; Evans, Louisa S.; Maxwell, Sara M.; Nenadovic, Mateja; and Ban, Natalie C., "Assessing Trade-Offs in Large Marine Protected Areas" (2018). Biological Sciences Faculty Publications. 246.