The Quaternary of Virginia---A Symposium Volume
Evidence derived from18late prehistoric (middle and late Woodland Period) archeological sites, from several early historical accounts, and from the current understanding of the distribution of Virginia mammals indicates that the large mammal fauna of the Commonwealth has not changed substantially within the past 4,000 yrs. Some species (e.g., bison, elk, timber wolf, and mountain lion) have been extirpated since the settlement of Virginia by Europeans; some previously extirpated species (e.g., porcupine, coyote, and beaver) have been naturally or artificially reintroduced during the historical period, and others (e.g., woodchuck and red fox) probably have expanded their distributions as a result of changing land-use patterns in the Commonwealth.
Original Publication Citation
Rose, R. K. (1986). Late prehistoric and protohistoric large mammal zoogeography of Virginia. In J. N. McDonald and S.O. Bird (Eds.), The Quaternary of Virginia---A Symposium Volume (pp. 79-88 ). Virginia Division of Mineral Resources, Special Publication 75. https://www.dmme.virginia.gov/commercedocs/PUB_75.pdf
Rose, Robert K., "Late Prehistoric and Protohistoric Large Mammal Zoogeography of Virginia" (1986). Biological Sciences Faculty Publications. 435.