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Publication Date




Publication Title

Limnology and Oceanography Letters








Salt marshes occur globally across climatic and coastal settings, providing key linkages between terrestrial and marine ecosystems. However, salt marsh science lacks a unifying conceptual framework; consequently, historically well-studied locations have been used as normative benchmarks. To allow for more effective comparisons across the diversity of salt marshes, we developed an integrative salt marsh conceptual framework. We review ecosystem-relevant drivers from global to local spatial scales, integrate these multi-scale settings into a framework, and provide guidance on applying the framework using specific variables on 11 global examples. Overall, this framework allows for appropriate comparison of study sites by accounting for global, coastal, inter-, and intra-system spatial settings unique to each salt marsh. We anticipate that incorporating this framework into salt marsh science will provide a mechanism to critically evaluate research questions and a foundation for effective quantitative studies that deepen our understanding of salt marsh function across spatial scales.


© 2023 The Authors.

This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Data Availability

Article states: "All data generated for this manuscript can be found in the supplemental information. All vector images are freely downloadable at"

Supplemental information can be found in the online version of the article at:

Original Publication Citation

Yando, E. S., Jones, S. F., James, W. R., Colombano, D. D., Montemayor, D. I., Nolte, S., Raw, J. L., Ziegler, S. L., Chen, L. Z., Daffonchio, D., Fusi, M., Rogers, K., & Sergienko, L. (2023). An integrative salt marsh conceptual framework for global comparisons. Limnology and Oceanography Letters, 8(6), 830-849.


0000-0002-8786-6178 (Yando)

Yando-2023-AnIntegrativeSupportingInfo1.docx (61 kB)
Supporting Information 1

Yando-2023-AnIntegrativeSupportingInfo2.pdf (980 kB)
Supporting Information 2