Document Type


Publication Date




Publication Title

The Microbe




100021 (1-4)


Livestock cattle have been widely linked to schistosomiasis epidemiology, but little is known about its contribution to schistosomiasis transmission in Nigeria. The aim of this study is to examine the association between prevalence of schistosomiasis and livestock cattle index in Nigeria. The study's data came from three sources: the demographic and health survey (DHS), the malaria indicators survey (MIS), and the expanded special project for the eradication of neglected tropical diseases (ESPEN). Analysis of variance, correlation, and logistic regression were used to evaluate the mean difference in schistosomiasis prevalence across geopolitical zones, the relationship between schistosomiasis prevalence and livestock cattle, and the risk of schistosomiasis in each geopolitical zone when the cattle index was known, respectively. The overall relationship of the pooled data showed that schistosomiasis endemicity increased significantly with livestock cattle index (r = 0.052, P = 0.0001). Reduction in livestock cattle significantly reduced schistosomiasis transmission in the Northeast and South south in 2021 (P < 0.05). Livestock cattle was consistently a significant negative predictor of schistosomiasis in the Northeast and South-South but a consistent significant risk factor of schistosomiasis transmission in the Northwest, Southeast, Southwest in 2018 and 2021 (P < 0.05). The possibility that livestock cattle are a predictor of transmission of schistosomiasis cannot be disparaged; hence, policies that will curtail the zoonotic mode of transmission should be developed for possible future implementation.


© 2023 The Authors.

This is an open access article under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND) license.

Data Availability

Article states: "Data will be made available on request."

Original Publication Citation

Oyeyemi, O. T., Okunlola, O. A., Fu, Z., Hong, Y., Chen, J.-H., & Shollenberger, L. M. (2023). Livestock cattle as a predictor of schistosomiasis transmission in Nigeria. The Microbe, 1, 1-4, Article 100021.


0000-0002-3089-2578 (Oyeyemi), 0000-0002-0943-0838 (Shollenberger)


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