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ICES Journal of Marine Science








The Atlantic surfclam (Spisula solidissima) fishery generates approximately USD 30 million in landings revenues annually, distributed across ports throughout the US Mid-Atlantic and Northeast. Overlap between areas of Atlantic surfclam harvests and offshore wind energy leasing make the fishery vulnerable to exclusion and effort displacement as development expands in the region. An existing integrated bioeconomic agent-based model, including spatial dynamics in Atlantic surfclam stock biology, heterogeneous captain behaviour, and federal management processes, was extended to incorporate costs and revenues for fishing vessels and processors and used to evaluate the potential economic effects of offshore wind development on the Atlantic surfclam fishery. Fishing activity and economic outcomes were simulated under different offshore wind energy development scenarios that impose spatial restrictions on Atlantic surfclam vessel fishing and transiting behaviour. Decreases in the number of trips and shifts in the spatial distribution of fishing effort reduced revenues for Atlantic surfclam fishing vessels and processors by ∼3–15% and increased average fishing costs by < 1–5%, with impacts varying across development scenarios and fishing ports. The modelling approach used in this analysis has potential for addressing additional questions surrounding sustainable ocean multi-use and further quantifying interactions between offshore wind energy development and commercial fisheries.


© The Author(s) 2022.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Data Availability

The data used in this research associated with individual vessel behaviour and characteristics cannot be shared publicly because it is considered private and confidential information. Summary data not included with the article or associated supplementary materials will be shared upon reasonable request to the corresponding author.

Original Publication Citation

Scheld, A. M., Beckensteiner, J., Munroe, D. M., Powell, E. N., Borsetti, S., Hofmann, E. E., & Klinck, J. M. (2022). The Atlantic surfclam fishery and offshore wind energy development: 2. Assessing economic impacts. ICES Journal of Marine Science, 79(6), 1801-1814.


0000-0001-6710-4371 (Hofmann)


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