Document Type


Publication Date




Publication Title

Frontiers for Young Minds




1089779 (1-10)


The Southern Ocean, which flows around the Antarctic continent, is home to vast numbers of unique and remarkable animals, including penguins, albatrosses, petrels, seals, and whales. The ocean bursts into life every spring, fueling a summer feeding and breeding frenzy. During the dark winter months, there is little food and life is very harsh. Human activities such as fishing and pollution are affecting this ecosystem, as is climate change. These ecosystem changes matter beyond the Southern Ocean! Ocean currents carry nutrients and organisms into and out of the Southern Ocean. Many marine mammals and seabirds swim or fly in and out of the Southern Ocean, in search of food and breeding grounds, or to escape the harsh Antarctic winter. These movements and migrations connect the Southern Ocean ecosystem with other marine ecosystems around the world. This means that changes in the Southern Ocean ecosystem can affect ecosystems around the world.


Young reviewers: Ashima, Avani, Hannah, Ria, Rima, Shaivi, Valerie


Copyright © 2023 Murphy, Johnston, Hofmann, Phillips, Jackson and Constable.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License. The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

Original Publication Citation

Murphy, E. J., Johnston, N. M., Hofmann, E. E., Phillips, R. A., Jackson, J. A., & Constable, A. J. (2023). The Southern Ocean ecosystem affects the entire world. Frontiers for Young Minds, 11, 1-10, Article 1089779.


0000-0001-6710-4371 (Hofmann)


Article Location