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npj Climate and Atmospheric Science






5 (1-9)


Post Hurricane Abnormal Water Level (PHAWL) poses a persistent inundation threat to coastal communities, yet unresolved knowledge gaps exist regarding its spatiotemporal impacts and causal mechanisms. Using a high-resolution coastal model with a set of observations, we find that the PHAWLs are up to 50 cm higher than the normal water levels for several weeks and cause delayed inundations around residential areas of the U.S. Southeast Coast (USSC). Numerical experiments reveal that while atmospheric forcing modulates the coastal PHAWLs, ocean dynamics primarily driven by the Gulf Stream control the mean component and duration of the shelf-scale PHAWLs. Because of the large spatial impact of the post-hurricane oceanic forcing, the coastal hazards are not limited to a direct hit from a hurricane but can be detected throughout the USSC where the oceanic processes reach.


Code Availabilty: The source code of SCHISM can be accessed at


© 2024 The Authors.

This is a U.S. Government work and not under copyright protection in the U.S., foreign copyright protection may apply 2024.

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Data Availability

Article states: "The DEM of the GEBCO 2022 is available at The CUDEM is available at The CMEMS model data can be obtained from The AVISO data is available at The ECMWF product can be downloaded from The HRRR data is available at The dataset of NOAA stations used in this study can be downloaded from https://tidesandcurrents.noaa/gov/map/index.html. The NOAA submarine cable data can be downloaded from The Argo data is available at The JPL GHRSST data is available at: The data archive of the sensitivity experiments can be requested by e-mail to the corresponding author."

Original Publication Citation

Park, K., Di Lorenzo, E., Zhang, Y. J., Wang, H., Ezer, T., & Ye, F. (2024). Delayed coastal inundations caused by ocean dynamics post-Hurricane Matthew. NPJ Climate and Atmospheric Science, 7(1), 1-9, Article 5.


0000-0002-2018-6071 (Ezer)

Ezer-2024-DelayedCoastalSupplementaryInformation.pdf (7261 kB)
Supplementary Information


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