Date of Award

Summer 2015

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Communication Disorders & Special Education


Special Education

Committee Director

Corrin Richels

Committee Member

Robert A. Gable

Committee Member

Shana Pribesh


The purpose of this study was to investigate if there is a relationship between the use of immediate feedback provided through instructional coaching and teacher behaviors shown to improve student achievement. Specifically this study used a time-series nonequivalent control group design to explore the relationship between instructional coaching using Bug-In-Ear (BIE) technology and teacher frequency of the following behaviors: (a) teacher use of technology-enhanced choral response as part of completed three-term contingency trials, (b) the high-access strategy of choral response versus the low-access strategy of call-outs and blurt-outs, (c) re-directs, reprimands, and behavior-specific praise statements. Measures of student engagement and achievement were collected by means of electronic student response systems. The findings of the study indicated that immediate feedback delivered by instructional coaching via BIE technology was not related to an increase in the frequency of completed teacher TTC trials. However, results indicated significant changes in teacher behaviors including use of choral response, re-directs and reprimands, and low-access strategies. A relationship between frequency and nature or coaching prompts and teacher prompts was also demonstrated. This study contributes to the field of education by introducing technology-enhanced choral response as a high-access instructional practice that may increase composite student achievement.


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