Date of Award

Summer 2017

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Communication Disorders & Special Education


Special Education

Committee Director

Robert Gable

Committee Member

Steve Tonelson

Committee Member

Jonna Bobzien

Committee Member

Marcia Rock


The goal of secondary education is to prepare students for greater levels of independence, especially in the areas of continued education and community employment. However, despite underlying potential, young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and comorbid intellectual disability (ID) are vastly underrepresented in the area of post secondary employment. This could be attributed to the unique characteristics and learning needs of these students, or it may be a function of the lack of effective, evidence-based teaching practices, implemented with fidelity.

The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness and participant perceptions of implementing the constant time delay (CTD) procedure, using a four second delay interval between presentation of the stimulus and providing a controlling prompt, when teaching students with ASD and ID during community-based instruction (CBI). Additionally, eCoaching, using bug-in-ear (BIE) technology, was used to coach the teacher interventionist. A multiple probe design across participants was used to evaluate the effects of the CTD with eCoaching intervention package on participants’ ability to independently sort and arrange clothing in sequential order by size in a local department store. The procedural fidelity of the teacher interventionist implementing CTD while receiving eCoaching, which consisted of real-time praise and corrective feedback, also was measured. Utilizing eCoaching while applying the CTD procedure resulted in consistently high rates of procedural fidelity. Correspondingly, the results demonstrated that young adult students rapidly acquired, generalized, and maintained the newly learned sorting skills up to three weeks post-intervention. All participants highly rated the CTD with eCoaching intervention package in terms of its effectiveness and desire for continued teaching and learning use of the procedure. Last, the discussion focuses on implications for practical application and future research.


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