Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Education & Training in Autism & Developmental Disabilities








Paraeducators often support students with the most intensive academic, life, and behavioral needs, which includes students with intellectual and other developmental disabilities (IDD; e.g., autism spectrum disorder; ASD), yet they typically enter the classroom with inadequate preparation to perform their roles effectively. Using a multiple-baseline research design replicated across participants, we evaluated the effects of job-embedded bug-in-ear (BIE) coaching delivered by the teacher on paraeducators’ use of behavior specific praise (BSP) while teaching transition-age students with ASD. Findings confirmed each of the three paraeducators immediately increased the percentage of occurrence and rate per minute in which they offered BSP. They sustained these high levels during fading. Further, the special education teacher, who served as the eCoach, and the paraeducators reported BIE was an effective form of paraeducator professional development. Finally, changes in expressive social and communicative behaviors were observed in student participants as a result of the intervention. These results extend literature on BSP and also help establish BIE coaching as an evidence-based practice for paraeducators.


Copyright of Education & Training in Autism & Developmental Disabilities is the property of Council for Exceptional Children, Division on Autism & Developmental Disabilities and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use.

Included with the kind written permission of the copyright holder.


0000-0002-9595-9075 (Horn), 0000-0001-9111-4991 (Layden)

Original Publication Citation

Horn, A.L., Rock, M.L., Douglas, K.H., Bean, K.M., Layden, S.J., & Roitsch, J. (2022). Effects of teacher-delivered ecoaching on paraeducators and students with autism spectrum disorder. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 57(3), 287-302.