Date of Award

Summer 2015

Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Civil & Environmental Engineering


Civil Engineering

Committee Director

Yunbyeong Chae

Committee Member

Zia Razzaq

Committee Member

Reza Moradi

Call Number for Print

Special Collections LD4331.E542 R43 2015


The use of accurate numerical integration algorithms is one of the key factors for a successful real-time hybrid simulation (RTHS). In RTHSs, explicit integration algorithms are preferred more than implicit methods since all calculations need to be completed within a given time step during simulation. Explicit methods require the use of effective stiffness and damping for experimental substructures, which are incorporated into the calculation of the integration parameters. In general, those values that are greater than the expected stiffness and damping of the experimental substructure are used to ensure the stability of simulation. If a rate-dependent and nonlinear experimental substructure is used, the use of excessively large values in the equivalent stiffness or damping may be required to ensure the stability of simulation over a wide range of frequency responses of the experimental substructure. However, the large values of the equivalent stiffness or damping can cause an error in the response update of the structural system, resulting in inaccurate simulation results. In this presentation, the effect of the use of large values in the equivalent stiffness or damping on the accuracy of numerical integration methods is investigated for a single-story building with a nonlinear viscous damper mounted on a diagonal bracing. In this case, the simulation results can be sensitive to the selection of equivalent stiffness and damping of the nonlinear viscous damper due to large axial stiffness of the diagonal bracing. The accuracy and stability of three different integration methods are investigated with different values of time delay, equivalent stiffness and the damping coefficientsof the nonlinear viscous damper, along with the variation of the stiffness of the diagonal bracing. It is expected that the results of this study can provide guidance for the proper selection of integration algorithms to increase the accuracy of RTHS.


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