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Biofuels Bioproducts & Biorefining-Biofpr








Advanced biofuels produced from lignocellulosic biomass offer an exciting opportunity to produce renewable liquid transportation fuels, biochemicals, and electricity from locally available agriculture and forest residues. The growing interest in biofuels from lignocellulosic feedstock in the United States (US) and the European Union (EU) can provide a path forward toward replacing petroleum-based fuels with sustainable biofuels which have the potential to lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The selection of biomass conversion technologies along with feedstock development plays a crucial role in the commercialization of next-generation biofuels. There has been synergy and, even with similar basic process routes, diversity in the conversion technologies chosen for commercialization in the EU and the US. The conversion technologies for lignocellulosic biomass to advanced biofuels can be broadly classified in three major categories: biochemical, thermochemical, and hybrid conversions. The objective of this review is to discuss the US and EU biofuel initiatives, feedstock availability, and the state-of-art conversion technologies that are potentially ready or are already being deployed for large-scale applications. The review covers and compares the developments in these areas in the EU and the USA and provides a comprehensive list of the most relevant ongoing development, demonstration, and commercialization activities in various companies, along with the different processing strategies adopted by these projects.


This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.


An Erratum to this article was published on November 14, 2013 and is included as an additional file.

Original Publication Citation

Balan, V., Chiaramonti, D., & Kumar, S. (2013). Review of US and EU initiatives toward development, demonstration, and commercialization of lignocellulosic biofuels. Biofuels Bioproducts & Biorefining-Biofpr, 7(6), 732-759. doi:10.1002/bbb.1436