Date of Award

Summer 2014

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Counseling & Human Services


Counselor Education and Supervision

Committee Director

Tim Grothaus

Committee Member

Theodore Remley

Committee Member

Chin-Yen Chen


The counselor education and supervision profession has embraced the need to prepare multiculturally competent supervisors (American Counseling Association, 2005; Bernard & Goodyear, 2013; Inman & Ladany, 2014). However, literature dealing with training supervisors to work with linguistically diverse supervisees is limited and supervisors' training needs for effectively supervising linguistically diverse supervisees are not yet clearly addressed. The aim of this qualitative study was to develop a theory which explained supervisors' perceptions of their multicultural training needs for working with English language learning supervisees. Constructivist grounded theory was utilized in this effort to analyze the data gathered from 10 supervisors who speak English as their first language and are providing clinical supervision in a CACREP program. Three superordinate themes as well as five themes and 17 subthemes were constructed and explained. The first superordinate theme, institutional level, had one theme emerge, which was institutional change. Institutional change involved two subthemes: improve infusion of competence with ELL in CACREP Standards and enhance advocacy for ELLs. The second superordinate theme that emerged was professional collaboration. One theme under this superordinate theme was enhanced collaboration. The third superordinate theme involved supervisor competence. The theme in this area included multicultural awareness, multicultural knowledge, and multicultural skills. Multicultural awareness involved six subthemes: awareness of increasing numbers and diversity of ELLs, recognize challenges and opportunities presented by linguistic differences, recognize probable similarities, recognize power differential, recognize cognitive complexity required for bicultural (or polycultural) competence, and understand languages are not semantically equivalent. Multicultural knowledge involved three subthemes: have a framework or have evidence-based knowledge to work with ELL supervisees, distinguish levels of acculturation, and knowledge of ELL cultures. Multicultural skills had five subthemes emerge. These subthemes were navigate dual language relationships, employ multicultural counseling skills in supervising ELLs, assess communication styles and outcomes, supervisors and supervisees are both teachers and learners, and facilitate parallel process. Possible implications of this research and suggestions for future study were provided.


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