Date of Award

Summer 8-2022

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Counseling & Human Services



Committee Director

Gulsah Kemer

Committee Member

Laura E. Smithers

Committee Member

Radha Horton-Parker

Committee Member

Connie T. Jones


Clinical supervision is a central building block in counseling that ensures client welfare, fosters supervisees’ professional development, and facilities the gatekeeping process of those entering the profession (Bernard & Goodyear, 2019). In addition to gatekeeping, the American Counseling Association (ACA; 2014) Code of Ethics mandates clinical supervisors to be aware of and address multiculturalism’s role in the supervisory relationship. Because of this mandate, doctoral student supervisors of counselor trainees in CACREP-accredited programs are responsible for integrating multicultural considerations through broaching to ensure racially and culturally responsive counseling to clients from diverse backgrounds (Bayne & Branco, 2018; Jones et al., 2019). This phenomenological inquiry aimed to explore the lived experiences of doctoral student supervisors of counselor trainees in CACREP-accredited programs broaching race and race-related issues in clinical supervision practice. The findings resulted in three themes: (a) the function of broaching, (b) supervisors’ characteristics, and (c) counselor training programs. The study revealed doctoral student supervisors had insights into the importance of broaching race and race-related issues in supervision to cultivate a working alliance. However, they experienced barriers and challenges that included individual characteristics, lack of adequate training, and counselor training programs’ critical consciousness. Supervisors also revealed insight into how these barriers and challenges were tied to the culture of white supremacy that upheld ideologies such as color blindness, the avoidance and resistance to the integration of voices of marginalized populations, and the centering of race and power in counselor training programs. The study findings have practical and research implications for all stakeholders of counselor training programs.