Date of Award

Spring 2024

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Counseling & Human Services



Committee Director

Gülşah Keme

Committee Member

Lauren Robins

Committee Member

Stacy Ogbeide

Committee Member

Judith Wambui Preston


The integration of behavioral health providers (BHPs, i.e., clinical mental health counselors, clinical psychologists, clinical social workers, marriage and family therapists) into primary care settings has developed as a healthcare practice associated with enhanced patient clinical outcomes, enhanced patient satisfaction, reduced healthcare expenditures, and enhanced provider wellness and satisfaction, known together as the Quadruple Aim. For BHPs practicing in integrated primary care (IPC) settings, researchers have highlighted a variety of challenges they experience when integrating in these settings, with a consistent challenge being a lack of satisfactory training and supervision. Clinical supervision has been hailed as the “signature pedagogy” for behavioral health professions (Bernard & Goodyear, 2019, p. 2), highlighting the importance for BHPs to be provided with adequate supervision for effective practice in IPC settings. The purpose of this study was to explore the supervisory needs of novice BHPs in IPC settings. In this study, I used a Delphi methodology to achieve consensus on what novice BHPs perceive to be their pertinent supervisory needs as they navigate clinical practice and professional development in IPC settings. The results indicated a list of 68 statements that a group of expert panelists indicated to be the supervisory needs of novice BHPs in IPC settings. These statements were categorized into nine themes: 1) The Supervisory Experience; 2) Supervisor Characteristics; 3) Supervisor Knowledge & Training; 4) Interdisciplinary Training;5) Medical Training; 6) Clinic-Specific Orientation; 7) Clinical Training; 8) Professional Development; and 9) Additional Supervisory Needs. The findings of this study have implications for current supervisors in IPC settings, novice BHPs in IPC settings, and behavioral health educators.


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