Date of Award

Spring 2019

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Counseling & Human Services


Counselor Education and Supervision

Committee Director

Gülşah Kemer

Committee Member

James M. Henson

Committee Member

Jeffry Moe


Supervisee disclosure in supervision is considered as a critical factor influencing the effectiveness of supervision (Spence et al., 2014). Despite previous researchers’ efforts to understand the concept (e.g., Knox, 2015; Yourman & Farber, 1996), a consensus over the definition for what is considered as supervisee disclosure is missing, posing threats to the construct validity of existing supervisee disclosure measures (e.g., Gunn & Pistole, 2012; Mehr, Ladany, & Caskie; 2015). Therefore, based on a summative definition (e.g., Ladany et al., 1996; Hess et al., 2008; Walsh, Gillespie, Greer & Eanes, 2003), Li and Kemer (under review) developed and provided initial validation for the Supervisee Disclosure in Supervision Scale (SDSS), a 20-item measure assessing the likelihood of supervisee disclosure regarding counseling and supervision experiences in supervision. One of the main purposes of the current study was to provide further validation for the SDSS. Furthermore, it is also necessary to determine what factors facilitate more supervisee disclosure (Knox, 2015). Scholars reported both supervisory working alliance and supervisory style as significant contributors to supervisee disclosure (e.g., Karpenko & Gidycz, 2012; Kreider, 2014; Gunn & Pistole, 2012). However, there is evidence that the relationships between supervisory style, supervisory working alliance, and supervisee disclosure in supervision are complex (e.g., Hess et al., 2008; Kreider, 2014). Thus, in the current study, I also examined the potential relationships between supervisory style, supervisory working alliance, and supervisee disclosure in supervision. Using a non-probability sampling method, I recruited participants who are currently receiving supervision, whether they are currently enrolled in the practicum or internship in the counseling or related programs in the U.S or graduated but currently working toward getting licensed. In a cross-sectional, non-experimental design, the data of the study was examined via Structural Equation Modeling (SEM), including Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) of the SDSS as well as mediation and moderated mediation models involving the variables of concern. The results showed that the SDSS’s dimensionality was confirmed with a cross-validation sample, the supervisory working alliance significantly mediated the relationships among all three types of supervisory styles and supervisee disclosure in supervision, and the task-oriented supervisory style also significantly moderated the mediation relationship among task-oriented supervisory style, supervisory working alliance, and supervisee disclosure in supervision. I discussed the major results and implications for counselor education and supervision as well as future research.


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