Date of Award

Spring 2019

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Counseling & Human Services


Counselor Education and Supervision

Committee Director

Christine Berger

Committee Member

Christopher Sink

Committee Member

James Baesler


The spiritual but not religious (SBNR) population in the U.S. has grown into a significant minority demographic (27%; Lipka & Gecewicz, 2017). Despite this emergence, scant literature has addressed this population and how it differs in values from others, specifically, how SBNR groups differ from those who identify as spiritual and religious (SAR), religious but not spiritual (RBNS), and not spiritual or religious (NSOR). To help this deficiency, this dissertation study explored the intersection of spirituality, religiosity, spiritual and religious categories (SRC; i.e. SAR, SBNR, RBNS, NSOR), and the theory of basic human values (Schwartz, 1992, 1994; Schwartz et al., 2012) in an undergraduate sample. Specifically, this study began with a factor analysis on the spirituality and religiosity scales. The results were that spirituality and religiosity factored into a singular factor named S/R. This new S/R factor was found to contribute to SRC self-identification through an ANOVA. Next, the S/R factor was correlated with values resulting in a positive correlation with tradition and a negative correlation with universalism. Finally, the SRC groups were compared by core and higher order values. The results were that the SBNR sample valued self-direction thought and devalued tradition more than the SAR sample. The conclusion of this study was that undergraduates in this sample may self-identify as an SRC not only because of spiritual and religious beliefs, but because of personal values as well.