Date of Award

Spring 2015

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Counseling & Human Services


Counselor Education and Supervision

Committee Director

Danica Hays

Committee Member

Shana Pribesh

Committee Member

Chris Wood


The use of technology in synchronous supervision has increased throughout counselor education. The current study explored the degree of technology used in synchronous university supervision across counselor educations programs, examined the relationship between demographic variables (income, location from university, children 18 and under, and hours worked per week) and synchronous distance supervision, and examined the relationship between various synchronous supervision delivery methods and supervisory working alliance. A cross sectional, non-experimental correlational design was used and participants ( N = 673) consisted of supervisors and supervisees from CACREP accredited counselor education programs who have participated in university supervision. A statistically significant relationship was identified between number of children 18 and under, location, and the odds of participating in synchronous distance supervision. A statistically significant relationship was also identified between the number of delivery methods used in synchronous distance supervision (one method or more than one method), the supervision course level (practicum or internship), and supervisory working alliance.


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