Date of Award

Summer 2015

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Counseling & Human Services



Committee Director

Jeffry Moe

Committee Member

Edward Neukrug

Committee Member

Chris Glass


The ACA code of ethics encourages the inclusion of family in the therapeutic process when doing so can be considered positive (ACA, 2014). Additionally, family dynamics are an important component of counseling for clients from diverse cultural backgrounds. A critical review of the literature reveals that there are differences between conceptual and physical inclusions of families in counseling. Counselors can use a family systems theoretical lens and or incorporate family-based interventions. The purpose of this study was to investigate how counselors include families in counseling and what factors are associated with family counseling practice. Variables assessed include training and coursework, experience, and multicultural competence. A MANOVA showed that there is a significant difference between family counseling practice groups (High, Low, Inconsistent) and the multivariate dependent variables. Post Hoc analysis further described these differences as being focused on training in family counseling and also in reported multicultural counseling competence (as measured by the MCKAS). Limitations, implications for training and practices, and future directions for research are discussed.


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