Date of Award

Spring 2011

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Counseling & Human Services


Counselor Education and Supervision

Committee Director

Danica G. Hays

Committee Member

John A. Nunnery

Committee Member

Suzan K. Thompson


As the United States population grows more diverse, many counseling professionals have called for attention to the cultural issues present in clinical supervision. Existing research suggests that the supervisor's level of multicultural competence and the strength of the supervisory working alliance may affect the relationship between supervisor-supervisee cultural differences on supervision outcomes. Accordingly, the study sought to address how cultural differences between the supervisor and supervisee, supervisor multicultural competence, and the supervisory working alliance impact supervisee counseling self-efficacy and satisfaction with supervision.

The study examined the plausibility of a moderated mediation model, derived from the literature, using a sample of doctoral and master's level counselor trainees who were receiving individual supervision. Participants completed an electronic survey packet containing a demographic sheet to measure the degree of supervisor-supervisee cultural differences, the Working Alliance Inventory-Short Form (WAI-S) to measure strength of the supervisory working alliance, the Supervisor Multicultural Competence Inventory (SMCI) to measure perceived supervisory multicultural competence, the Counselor Self-Estimate Inventory (COSE) to measure supervisee counseling self-efficacy (CSE), and Trainee Personal Reaction Scale-Revised (TPRS-R) to measure supervisee satisfaction with supervision. SEM techniques were used to determine the extent to which the theoretical model is supported by sample data, as well as the relationships between the model's parameters.

The results indicated supervisor-supervisee cultural differences were not significantly related to the supervision outcome variables, supervisee satisfaction with supervision and CSE. However, supervisor multicultural competence was significantly related to both supervisee satisfaction with supervision and CSE, with the supervisory working alliance fully mediating the relationship between supervisor multicultural competence and supervisee satisfaction with supervision. Lastly, the moderated mediation model was found to be a good fit to the data; however, the modified mediation model was the most parsimonious fit to the data. Implications of these findings for supervisors and counselor educators are discussed.


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