Date of Award

Summer 2014

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Counseling & Human Services


Counselor Education and Supervision

Committee Director

Danika Hays

Committee Member

Tim Grothaus

Committee Member

Twila Lukowiak


Supervision in counseling is essential to the personal and professional growth of counselors, and ensures client welfare (Bernard & Goodyear, 2013). The purpose of this study was to examine supervisees' perceived satisfaction with supervision, the SWA, and supervisee self-efficacy, with supervision experiences they have during practicum and/or internship. Specifically, the association these perceived levels of satisfaction, the SWA, and self-efficacy had with supervisor type (i.e., full-time faculty, adjunct faculty, or doctoral student) and student type (i.e., practicum or internship) were explored. Additionally, this study investigated how multicultural variables (i.e., race/ethnicity, gender, and degree of practice related to religious/spiritual affiliation) were related to supervisees' perceived satisfaction with supervision, SWA, and supervisee self-efficacy. Participants consisted of 165 graduate students currently enrolled in a CACREP accredited counseling program. These participants also had to be in Practicum or Internship stage of the program and receiving supervision. Three survey instruments, the Supervision Satisfaction Questionnaire (SSQ), the Supervisory Working Alliance Inventory-Trainee (SWAIT-T), and the Counseling Self-Estimate Inventory (COSE), were compiled and sent electronically to the participants. This study did not find significance possibly due to limited sample size and low power, but the study did find the participants reported high supervision satisfaction, moderate SWA, and moderate counselor self-efficacy. Also, participants in the internship stage reported higher satisfaction than students in the practicum stage. There was no main effect found for race/ethnicity and religion/spirituality in regards to supervision satisfaction, SWA, and self-efficacy. However, there was a main effect found for gender and counselor self-efficacy.


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