Bioaerosol Effect on Safe Use of Bathroom Appliances for Drinking Water Consumption

Document Type


Publication Date


Publication Title

Virginia Journal of Public Health






2 (3-12)


Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the bioaerosol effects on the use of bathroom appliances (a fountain faucet and a reusable cup) for drinking water consumption.

Methods: A mechanically pressurized hydraulic spray nozzle was used to generate bioaerosols containing non-pathogenic E. coli. These bioaerosols became airborne and came in contact with a fountain faucet (NASONI, Inc.) and a reusable cup. 10 mL and 100 mL of water samples from the cup and the faucet stream, respectively, were collected at intervals of 10 secs, 30 secs, 1 min, 2 mins, and 5 mins. A Tryptic Soy Broth (TSB) liquid solution was used to determine whether E. coli was present in the water, while the Colilert test was conducted to quantify E. coli concentrations.

Results: 88 MPN/100 mL – 866 MPN/100 mL of E. coli from the aerosol effect was removed from the fountain stream after the faucet was kept open for 10 secs. However, E. coli continued to be present in the reusable cup over the sampling period.

Conclusion: The fountain feature of the faucet had a significantly lower risk of microbial contamination from the aerosol effect as compared with the reusable cup.

Original Publication Citation

Bland, D., Subedi, S., & Jeng, H. A. (2020). Bioaerosol effect on safe use of bathroom appliances for drinking water consumption. Virginia Journal of Public Health, 4(1), 3-12, Article 2.