Document Type


Publication Date




Publication Title

Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology








Under-nutrition prevents growth and development in children and is the leading factor to illness and death among children less than five years of age in developing countries. The objective of the study was to determine associations of demographic, cultural and environmental factors with frequency and severity of malnutrition among children less than five years of age in Zambia. We used data from the Zambia multiple indicator cluster survey (MICS) from years of 1999 to 2000. Altogether 6,142 children participated in the survey. The prevalence rates for being "underweight", "stunted" and "wasted" were 17.6, 37.5 and 4.1%, respectively. Compared to children from Western province, those from Luapula, Northern, and North-West provinces were more likely to be underweight. Children from Lusaka, Southern, Copperbelt, Eastern, and Central provinces were less likely to be underweight compared to those from Western province. Other factors associated with children malnutrition included sex, low educational level of householder and mother, poverty, vaccination status and type of toilet. The data acquired in this study may be used in developing interventions to prevent and mitigate children malnutrition. Special attention may have to be given to the provinces where children are more likely to suffer from malnutrition.


© 2022 Authors retain the copyright of this article.

This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) License.

Original Publication Citation

Nzala, S. H., Siziya, S., Babaniyi, O., Songolo, P., Muula, A. S., & Rudatsikira, E. (2011). Demographic, cultural and environmental factors associated with frequency and severity of malnutrition among Zambian children less than five years of age. Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology, 3(8), 362-370.