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Scientific Reports








To investigate factors associated with cognitive functioning in healthy adolescents, a school-based cross-sectional study was conducted on 1370 adolescents aged 11-16 years that were randomly selected from all governorates of Kuwait. Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices (SPM), a non-verbal test of intelligence, was used to measure cognitive functioning of the study participants. Data on predictors of cognitive functioning were collected from parents and adolescents. Weight and height of the participants were measured in a standardized manner and blood samples were tested in an accredited laboratory under strict measures of quality control. In multivariable linear regression analysis, factors that showed significant association with the SPM score were gender (p=0.002), season of birth (p=0.009), place of residence (p<0.001), father's (p<0.001) and mother's (p=0.025) educational level, type of housing (p<0.001), passive smoking at home (p=0.031), sleeping hours during weekends (p=0.017), students' educational level (p<0.001) and the frequency of consumption of sugary drinks (p<0.001). The link between cognitive functioning and season of birth seems to be robust in various geographical locations including the Middle East. The association between sugary drinks and cognitive functioning highlights the importance of diet independently of obesity and support efforts to reduce consumption of sugary drinks among children.


Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

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Original Publication Citation

Al-Sabah, R., Al-Taiar, A., Rahman, A., Shaban, L., Al-Harbi, A., & Mojiminiyi, O. (2020). Season of birth and sugary beverages are predictors of Raven’s Standard progressive Matrices Scores in adolescents. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 1-12. doi: 10.1038/s41598-020-63089-2


0000-0001-7421-3381 (Al-Taiar)

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