Date of Award

Winter 2002

Document Type

Dissertation

Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Department

Computer Science

Committee Director

David Keyes

Committee Member

William Gropp

Committee Member

Alex Pothen

Committee Member

Chester Grosch

Committee Member

Mohammad Zubair

Abstract

This dissertation studies the sources of poor performance in scientific computing codes based on partial differential equations (PDEs), which typically perform at a computational rate well below other scientific simulations (e.g., those with dense linear algebra or N-body kernels) on modern architectures with deep memory hierarchies. We identify that the primary factors responsible for this relatively poor performance are: insufficient available memory bandwidth, low ratio of work to data size (good algorithmic efficiency), and nonscaling cost of synchronization and gather/scatter operations (for a fixed problem size scaling). This dissertation also illustrates how to reuse the legacy scientific and engineering software within a library framework.

Specifically, a three-dimensional unstructured grid incompressible Euler code from NASA has been parallelized with the Portable Extensible Toolkit for Scientific Computing (PETSc) library for distributed memory architectures. Using this newly instrumented code (called PETSc-FUN3D) as an example of a typical PDE solver, we demonstrate some strategies that are effective in tolerating the latencies arising from the hierarchical memory system and the network. Even on a single processor from each of the major contemporary architectural families, the PETSc-FUN3D code runs from 2.5 to 7.5 times faster than the legacy code on a medium-sized data set (with approximately 105 degrees of freedom). The major source of performance improvement is the increased locality in data reference patterns achieved through blocking, interlacing, and edge reordering. To explain these performance gains, we provide simple performance models based on memory bandwidth and instruction issue rates.

Experimental evidence, in terms of translation lookaside buffer (TLB) and data cache miss rates, achieved memory bandwidth, and graduated floating point instructions per memory reference, is provided through accurate measurements with hardware counters. The performance models and experimental results motivate algorithmic and software practices that lead to improvements in both parallel scalability and per-node performance. We identify the bottlenecks to scalability (algorithmic as well as implementation) for a fixed-size problem when the number of processors grows to several thousands (the expected level of concurrency on terascale architectures). We also evaluate the hybrid programming model (mixed distributed/shared) from a performance standpoint.

DOI

10.25777/armz-kn08

ISBN

9780493883694

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