Date of Award
Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
Lesley H. Greene
The two major challenges in protein structure prediction problems are (1) the lack of an accurate energy function and (2) the lack of an efficient search algorithm. A protein energy function accurately describing the interaction between residues is able to supervise the optimization of a protein conformation, as well as select native or native-like structures from numerous possible conformations. An efficient search algorithm must be able to reduce a conformational space to a reasonable size without missing the native conformation. My PhD research studies focused on these two directions.
A protein energy function—the distance and orientation dependent energy function of amino acid key blocks (DOKB), containing a distance term, an orientation term, and a highly packed term—was proposed to evaluate the stability of proteins. In this energy function, key blocks of each amino acids were used to represent each residue; a novel reference state was used to normalize block distributions. The dependent relationship between the orientation term and the distance term was revealed, representing the preference of different orientations at different distances between key blocks. Compared with four widely used energy functions using six general benchmark decoy sets, the DOKB appeared to perform very well in recognizing native conformations. Additionally, the highly packed term in the DOKB played its important role in stabilizing protein structures containing highly packed residues. The cluster potential adjusted the reference state of highly packed areas and significantly improved the recognition of the native conformations in the ig_structal data set. The DOKB is not only an alternative protein energy function for protein structure prediction, but it also provides a different view of the interaction between residues.
The top-k search algorithm was optimized to be used for proteins containing both α-helices and β-sheets. Secondary structure elements (SSEs) are visible in cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) density maps. Combined with the SSEs predicted in a protein sequence, it is feasible to determine the topologies referring to the order and direction of the SSEs in the cryo-EM density map with respect to the SSEs in the protein sequence. Our group member Dr. Al Nasr proposed the top-k search algorithm, searching the top-k possible topologies for a target protein. It was the most effective algorithm so far. However, this algorithm only works well for pure a-helix proteins due to the complexity of the topologies of β-sheets. Based on the known protein structures in the Protein Data Bank (PDB), we noticed that some topologies in β-sheets had a high preference; on the contrary, some topologies never appeared. The preference of different topologies of β-sheets was introduced into the optimized top-k search algorithm to adjust the edge weight between nodes. Compared with the previous results, this optimization significantly improved the performance of the top-k algorithm in the proteins containing both α-helices and β-sheets.
"De Novo Protein Structure Modeling and Energy Function Design"
(2015). Doctor of Philosophy (PhD), dissertation, Computer Science, Old Dominion University, DOI: 10.25777/bd1n-cg38