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Animal Cells and Systems








Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is a key paracrine mediator of ovulation. Few specific PGE2-regulated gene products have been identified, so we hypothesized that PGE2 may regulate the expression and/or activity of a network of proteins to promote ovulation. To test this concept, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) was used to predict PGE2-regulated functionalities in the primate ovulatory follicle. Cynomolgus macaques underwent ovarian stimulation. Follicular granulosa cells were obtained before (0 h) or 36 h after an ovulatory dose of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), with ovulation anticipated 37-40 h after hCG. Granulosa cells were obtained from additional monkeys 36 h after treatment with hCG and the PTGS2 inhibitor celecoxib, which significantly reduced hCG-stimulated follicular prostaglandin synthesis. Granulosa cell RNA expression was determined by microarray and analyzed using IPA. No granulosa cell mRNAs were identified as being significantly up-regulated or down-regulated by hCG + celecoxib compared with hCG only. However, IPA predicted that prostaglandin depletion significantly regulated several functional pathways. Cell cycle/cell proliferation was selected for further study because decreased granulosa cell proliferation is known to be necessary for ovulation and formation of a fully-functional corpus luteum. Prospective in vivo and in vitro experiments confirmed the prediction that hCG-stimulated cessation of granulosa cell proliferation is mediated via PGE2. Our studies indicate that PGE2 provides critical regulation of granulosa cell proliferation through mechanisms that do not involve significant regulation of mRNA levels of key cell cycle regulators. Pathway analysis correctly predicted that PGE2 serves as a paracrine mediator of this important transition in ovarian structure and function.


© 2020 The Authors.

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Original Publication Citation

Lundberg, P. S., Moskowitz, G. J., Bellacose, C., Demirel, E., Trau, H. A., & Duffy, D. M. (2020). Granulosa cell proliferation is inhibited by PGE2 in the primate ovulatory follicle. Animal Cells and Systems, 24(3), 125-135. doi:10.1080/19768354.2020.1764385