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Article in Press


20 pp.


This paper proposes an artificial intelligence (AI) framework that leverages integrated sensing and communication (ISAC), aided by the age of sensing (AoS) to ensure the timely location updates of the users for a holographic MIMO (HMIMO)- enabled wireless network. The AI-driven framework guarantees optimal power allocation for efficient beamforming by activating the minimal number of grids from the HMIMO base station. An optimization problem is formulated to maximize the sensing utility function, aiming to maximize the signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) of the received signal, beam-pattern gains to improve the sensing SINR of reflected echo signals and maximizing the evidence lower bound minus loss function, which in turn minimizes the losses of the ISAC process, and maximizes achievable rate for efficient power allocation. A novel AI-driven framework is presented to tackle the formulated NP-hard problem by decomposing it into two problems: a sensing problem and a power allocation problem. The sensing problem is solved by employing a variational autoencoder (VAE)-based mechanism that obtains the sensing information leveraging AoS, which is used for the location update. Subsequently, a deep deterministic policy gradient-based deep reinforcement learning scheme is devised to allocate the desired power by activating the required grids based on the findings achieved with the VAE-based mechanism. Simulation results demonstrate the superior performance of the proposed AI framework compared to advantage actor-critic and deep Q-network-based methods, achieving a cumulative average SINR improvement of 8.5 dB and 10.27 dB, and a cumulative average achievable rate improvement of 21.59 bps/Hz and 4.22 bps/Hz, respectively.


e-Prints posted on TechRxiv are preliminary reports that are not peer reviewed. They should not be regarded as conclusive, guide clinical practice/health-related behavior, or be reported in the media as established information.

Published under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0) License.

Original Publication Citation

Apurba Adhikary, Avi Deb Raha, Yu Qiao, et al. Age of Sensing Empowered Holographic ISAC Framework for NextG Wireless Networks: A VAE and DRL Approach. TechRxiv. March 04, 2024.


0000-0002-7255-1085 (Munir)