Document Type


Publication Date




Publication Title

Computer Assisted Surgery






2271160 (1-17)


Craniomaxillofacial (CMF) surgery is a challenging and very demanding field that involves the treatment of congenital and acquired conditions of the face and head. Due to the complexity of the head and facial region, various tools and techniques were developed and utilized to aid surgical procedures and optimize results. Virtual Surgical Planning (VSP) has revolutionized the way craniomaxillofacial surgeries are planned and executed. It uses 3D imaging computer software to visualize and simulate a surgical procedure. Numerous studies were published on the usage of VSP in craniomaxillofacial surgery. However, the researchers found inconsistency in the previous literature which prompted the development of this review. This paper aims to provide a comprehensive review of the findings of the studies by conducting an integrated approach to synthesize the literature related to the use of VSP in craniomaxillofacial surgery. Twenty-nine related articles were selected as a sample and synthesized thoroughly. These papers were grouped assigning to the four subdisciplines of craniomaxillofacial surgery: orthognathic surgery, reconstructive surgery, trauma surgery and implant surgery. The following variables – treatment time, the accuracy of VSP, clinical outcome, cost, and cost-effectiveness – were also examined. Results revealed that VSP offers advantages in craniomaxillofacial surgery over the traditional method in terms of duration, predictability and clinical outcomes. However, the cost aspect was not discussed in most papers. This structured literature review will thus provide current findings and trends and recommendations for future research on the usage of VSP in craniomaxillofacial surgery.


© 2023 The Authors

This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) License, which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Original Publication Citation

Velarde, K., Cafino, R., Isla, A., Ty, K. M., Palmer, X.-L., Potter, L., Nadorra, L., Pueblos, L. V., & Velasco, L. C. (2023). Virtual surgical planning in craniomaxillofacial surgery: A structured review. Computer Assisted Surgery, 28(1), 1-17, Article 2271160.


0000-0002-1289-5302 (Palmer)