Document Type


Publication Date




Publication Title

Journal of Applied Physics






093510 (1-10)


The nucleation and growth of indium on a vicinal Si (100) - (2×1) surface at high temperature by femtosecond pulsed laser deposition was investigated by in situ reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED). RHEED intensity relaxation was observed for the first ∼2 ML during the growth of In (4×3) by step flow. From the temperature dependence of the rate of relaxation, an activation energy of 1.4±0.2 eV of surface diffusion was determined. The results indicate that indium small clusters diffused to terrace step edges with a diffusion frequency constant of (1.0±0.1) × 1011 s-1. The RHEED specular beam split peak spacing, which is characteristic of a vicinal surface, was analyzed with the growth temperature to obtain the average terrace width. Gradual reduction in the terrace width during growth of In (4×3) was observed with In coverage and is attributed to the detachment of In atoms from terrace edges. At a substrate temperature of 405 °C, the average terrace width decreased from 61±10 Å, which corresponds to the vicinal Si(100) surface, to an equilibrium value of 45±7 Å after deposition of ∼23 ML. Further In coverage showed a transition of the RHEED pattern from (4×3) to (1×1) and the growth of rounded In islands (average height of ∼1 nm and width of ∼25 nm), as examined by ex situ atomic force microscopy. © 2008 American Institute of Physics. [DOI: 10.1063/1.2909923]

Original Publication Citation

Hafez, M. A., & Elsayed-Ali, H. E. (2008). Activation energy of surface diffusion and terrace width dynamics during the growth of in (4×3) on Si (100) - (2×1) by femtosecond pulsed laser deposition. Journal of Applied Physics, 103(9), 093510. doi:10.1063/1.2909923