Cultural Intelligence: An Examination of Predictive Relationships in a Study Abroad Population

Date of Award

Spring 2010

Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)


Educational Foundations & Leadership


Higher Education

Committee Director

Dana Burnett

Committee Member

David Hager

Committee Member

Cherng-Jyh Yen


This quantitative study examined the relationships between cultural intelligence (CQ) and four predictor variables: gender, degree level, major, and prior travel abroad, through a post-test only research design. Participants included undergraduate and graduate students enrolled in one of three large, public, research universities in the southeast United States. Students in the sample participated in their first study abroad (short-term) experience from 2006 to 2009.

Data was analyzed via a post-test only research design. Data were collected using The Cultural Intelligence Scale (CQS) (Ang, Van Dyne, Koh, Ng, Templer, Tay, & Chandrasekar, 2007). The 20-item survey instrument utilizes a seven point Likert-type scale, ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree, to assess meta-cognitive, cognitive, motivational, and behavioral aspects of cultural intelligence. It was administered via an online web survey.

Several simple regression analyses were utilized to examine the predictive relationship between four variables (gender, degree level, major, and prior travel abroad) with each of the criterion variables of cultural intelligence (meta-cognitive, cognitive, motivational, and behavioral), and the total score. Degree level was found to be a statistically significant predictor of all four factors of cultural intelligence: meta-cognitive, cognitive, motivational, and behavioral, as well as overall CQ. Academic major was found to be a statistically significant predictor of cognitive, motivational, and overall cultural intelligence. Prior travel abroad was found to be a statistically significant predictor of only one factor of cultural intelligence, behavioral.


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