Monocular Camera Viewpoint-Invariant Vehicular Traffic Segmentation and Classification Utilizing Small Datasets
Copyright: © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ 4.0/).
The work presented here develops a computer vision framework that is view angle independent for vehicle segmentation and classification from roadway traffic systems installed by the Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT). An automated technique for extracting a region of interest is discussed to speed up the processing. The VDOT traffic videos are analyzed for vehicle segmentation using an improved robust low-rank matrix decomposition technique. It presents a new and effective thresholding method that improves segmentation accuracy and simultaneously speeds up the segmentation processing. Size and shape physical descriptors from morphological properties and textural features from the Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG) are extracted from the segmented traffic. Furthermore, a multi-class support vector machine classifier is employed to categorize different traffic vehicle types, including passenger cars, passenger trucks, motorcycles, buses, and small and large utility trucks. It handles multiple vehicle detections through an iterative k-means clustering over-segmentation process. The proposed algorithm reduced the processed data by an average of 40%. Compared to recent techniques, it showed an average improvement of 15% in segmentation accuracy, and it is 55% faster than the compared segmentation techniques on average. Moreover, a comparative analysis of 23 different deep learning architectures is presented. The resulting algorithm outperformed the compared deep learning algorithms for the quality of vehicle classification accuracy. Furthermore, the timing analysis showed that it could operate in real-time scenarios.