Document Type

Conference Paper

Publication Date


Publication Title

IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings



Conference Name

IISE Annual Conference & Expo 2022, May 21-24, Seattle, Washington


In the last decade, information security research has further expanded to include human factors as key elements of the organization's cybersecurity infrastructure. Numerous factors from several theories have been explored to explain and predict the multitude of information security-related behaviors in organizations. Lately, there has been a call for the study of specific cybersecurity behaviors in contextualized scenarios that reflect specific and realistic situations of a potential cyber-attack. This paper focuses on precursors of email response in situations that can be the origin of cybersecurity incidents in organizations (i.e., phishing attacks, ransomware, etc.). This study explores participants' intentions to follow recommendations related to personal information handling when using email at work, attitudes towards and subjective norms relative those recommendations, and anticipated regret for ignoring secure recommendations. To capture the proposed factors, this study develops and tests a survey-based measurement. This paper describes the approach to item formulation, survey administration, pretesting, and analysis of the instrument's preliminary psychometric properties along with preliminary evidence of predictors of compliance with information security recommendations. The developed measurement will be instrumental in future research to test the predictive capability of the factors explored in this study.


© 2022 Institute of Industrial and Systems Engineers. All rights reserved.

Included with the kind written permission of the copyright holders.


0000-0002-8699-3685 (Toro-Jarrin), 0000-0003-4348-7798 (Pazos-Lago)

Original Publication Citation

Toro-Jarrin, M. A., Pazos-Lago, P., & Padilla, M. (2022). Precursors of email response to cybersecurity scenarios: Factor exploration and scale development. In K. Ellis, W. Ferrell & J. Knapp (Eds.), IIE Annual Conference. Proceedings (pp. 1-6). Institute of Industrial and Systems Engineers.