Document Type

Conference Paper

Publication Date




Publication Title

Procedia Computer Science





Conference Name

Complex Adaptive Systems Conference with Theme: Engineering Cyber Physical Systems, CAS October 30 - November 1, 2017, Chicago, Illinois, USA


The challenges in uncertain, dynamic and complex military operation environments exceed the problem-solving capabilities of individuals. Problem-solving has become a team task. These [hybrid] teams, which typically include machine and human elements, utilize autonomy and artificial intelligence to enhance the quality of actionable information and decision-making capabilities in solving complex problems. For this to be effective, shared mental models must be developed by teams. This demands adaptive behavior of team members to establish a common understanding, and its members to respond to the changes in complex dynamic environments.

In this paper, we introduce a mathematical formalization of an interaction platform designed to support individuals working in heterogeneous, hybrid teams. The purpose of the platform is to facilitate convergent adaptive behavior and interoperability. Hilbert space is used to provide a mathematical foundation and coherent axiomatic structure. Individual and shared mental models are represented in the form of superposition of vector states in a conceptual space. Hilbert Space allows for the inclusion of phenomena, such as spooky activation, entanglement, or emergence that are representative of complex social dynamics.


This article is open access under a Creative Commons license.

Original Publication Citation

Canan, M., Sousa-Poza, A., & Dean, A. (2017). Complex adaptive behavior of hybrid teams. Procedia Computer Science, 114, 139-148. doi: