Document Type


Publication Date




Publication Title

Energy Reports





Conference Name

2022 7th International Conference on Green Energy Technologies, ICGET 2022 July 28–30, 2022, Frankfurt, Germany


Nowadays, EVs are rapidly increasing in popularity, and are accepted as the vehicles of the future all over the world. The most important components are their battery and charging systems. The energy capacity of EVs’ batteries has a significant potential to supply different energy requirements. Therefore, EVs must be designed in accordance with bidirectional power flow, and Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) should be upgraded as Electric Vehicle Power Exchange Equipment (EVPE). This power exchange infrastructure can be called Vehicle-to-Anything (V2X). V2X will also be the key solution for energy grids of the future that will turn into a much larger and smarter system with the help of emerging digitalization technologies, such as Artificial Intelligence (AI), Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT), and the Internet of Things (IoT). This study introduces a multi-layer Cyber–Physical Power Systems (CPPS) framework to explore the potential of V2X technologies allowing bidirectional charging. In addition, the impact of e-mobility is discussed from the V2X perspective. V2X has the potential to provide more practical use of electric vehicles and to bring advantages to the user in terms of both economy and comfort, thus accelerating the transformation of e-mobility and making it easier to accept.


This article is available under the Creative Commons CC-BY-NC-ND license and permits non-commercial use of the work as published, without adaptation or alteration provided the work is fully attributed.

© 2022 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Data Availability

The authors are unable or have chosen not to specify which data has been used.

Original Publication Citation

Elma, O., Cali, U., & Kuzlu, M. (2022). An overview of bidirectional electric vehicles charging system as a Vehicle to Anything (V2X) under Cyber–Physical Power System (CPPS). Energy Reports, 8, 25-32.


0000-0002-8719-2353 (Kuzlu)