Document Type

Conference Paper

Publication Date


Publication Title

Proceedings of the 2016 COMSOL Conference in Boston


7 pp.

Conference Name

2016 COMSOL Conference in Boston, October 5-7, 2016, Boston, Massachusetts


Single-phase fluid flow was simulated passing through various three dimensional pipe elbows. The simulations varied by Reynolds number, curvature ratios, and sweep angles and were all conducted using the k-e model available in COMSOL Multiphysics 5.1. The intent of this research was to qualitatively assess the flow characteristics under several different conditions. Many similarities were seen especially when comparing curvature ratios, the vorticity location for the turbulent cases show near identical behavior at the elbow midsection. One of the variables quantified in this paper is the maximum secondary velocity module which shows increasing values until the midsection of the elbow.


© 2016 The Authors.

Included with the kind written permission of the copyright holder, with gratitude to COMSOL, Inc.

Original Publication Citation

Kaldy, Z., & Ayala, L. F. (2016). Quantitative assessment of secondary flows of single-phase fluid through pipe bends [Conference paper]. 2016 COMSOL Conference in Boston, Boston, Massachusetts.


0000-0003-0604-8606 (Ayala)