College of Education & Professional Studies (Darden)


Human Movement Sciences

Graduate Level


Graduate Program/Concentration

Park, Recreation & Tourism Studies

Publication Date





The purpose of this study was to understand the evolving visitor experience at Monocacy National Battlefield (MONO) in Fredrick, Maryland and, specifically, the way this National Park Service site serves both its’ tourist and local visitors. MONO has two main demographics who utilize it: individuals seeking to learn about historical importance of the site in the Civil War and local recreational visitors from Frederick and surrounding communities. Due to MONO’s proximity to the more densely populated area of Fredrick and Civil War roots, it appeals to both of these populations, who find different uses in the park. Accordingly, we were asked to assist the Park, in better understanding the similarities or differences between visitors desired amenities, opportunities, and experiences at the Park to guide future investment, planning and management. To gauge visitors’ perceived importance and performance across different characteristics, an Importance-Performance questionnaire was developed. This process “provides businesses and organizations with a fairly clear assessment of where they are performing well and where improvements are required” (Draper, 2016; Martilla & James, 1977). Following survey design and approval, onsite sampling occurred over 21 visitor contact days in summer and fall of 2021. 469 visitors were contacted across five sites of interest identified by the park. 445 visitors agreed to participate, yielding an acceptance rate of 94.9 percent. Surveys were conducted online and completed by visitors following their visit. 287 visitors completed more than half of the survey yielding a 61.2 percent response rate. Emerging results suggest key differences and similarities across visitor types.


Draper, J. (2016). Applying importance-performance analysis to services of a visitor information center. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 18(1), 84–95. doi: 10.1177/1467358415627300

Martilla, J., & James, J. (1977). Importance-Performance Analysis. Journal of Marketing, 41(1), 77-79. doi:10.2307/1250495


parks, tourism, importance-performance analysis, Monocacy, National Park Service


Recreation, Parks and Tourism Administration



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An Importance-Performance Analysis of Local and Destination Visitors to Monocacy National Battlefield