Date of Award

Fall 1997

Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)



Committee Director

Lorraine M. Lees

Committee Member

Willard C. Frank

Committee Member

Austin Jersild

Call Number for Print

Special Collections LD4331.H47 K37


Although it seemed at the time that the destruction of a U-2 reconnaissance aircraft over Soviet territory, slightly over two weeks prior to the Four-Power May 1960 Paris Conference had ended the summit, more deeply rooted historical differences ensured the meeting's failure. While President Dwight Eisenhower sought to ensure a national policy of defense sufficiency via his New Look strategy, he faced many internal and external critics who over-stepped or underutilized their positions. These included Allen Dulles, Christian Herter, Richard Bissell and Charles De Gaulle. Nikita Khrushchev faced internal division over his desires to achieve a new peaceful coexistence as well, and his own external challenges from Mao Tse-Tung. In the end, both leaders inability to manage the pressures they faced and ensure their domestic advisors adherence to their national strategy ended their attempts to cool the Cold War.


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