Date of Award

Fall 1989

Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)



Committee Director

Willard C. Frank

Committee Member

Patrick Rollins

Committee Member

Carl Boyd

Call Number for Print

Special Collections LD4331.H47 M43


This thesis compares the effectiveness of three Americans who led major guerrilla groups against the Japanese in the Philippine Islands during World War II. It is limited to Wendell Fertig on Mindanao, James Cushing on Cebu, and Russell Volckmann on Luzon. Previous works addressed only individual leaders; this thesis compares different leaders.

The thesis concludes that although differences did exist in how each individual officer rose to command, all three were effective in leading resistance efforts against the Japanese. The greatest differences among them were the amount of support they received from MacArthur's General Headquarters Southwest Pacific Area (GHQ SWPA) and the degree to which each leader needed that support.

The thesis's primary sources are in the MacArthur Memorial Archives, Norfolk, Virginia, in Record Group 3, the records of the GHQ SWPA, and Record Group 16, the personal papers of Major General Courtney Whitney, the GHQ SWPA officer responsible for coordinating and supporting all guerrilla activity in the Philippines.


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