Date of Award

Fall 1986

Document Type


Degree Name

Master of Arts (MA)



Committee Director

Harold Wilson

Committee Member

Peter C. Stewart

Committee Member

D. Alan Harris

Call Number for Print

Special Collections LD4331.H47C52


General John Henry Winder enforced martial law in the Confederate capital in Richmond from the winter of 1862 .to the spring of 1864. Winder's Richmond was plagued with lawlessness, disloyalty, and espionage. He was an experienced and capable commander who enforced his summary orders diligently. But Winder's regime only succeeded in managing the city for brief periods. The complex problems he confronted probably were insurmountable; by the end of his administration Richmond remained in turmoil. Several factors were responsible for this: numerous people were willing to risk prison to participate in the lucrative liquor trade, the basis for much of the lawlessness; the insufficient civil and military police force was pitted against a transient population which more than tripled; the Congress, the city council, and the War Department limited Winder's power; and the detective force alienated many of the people they were charged to protect.


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