Virginia Magazine of History and Biography
African-Americans in postbellum Norfolk, Virginia, as elsewhere, knew that merely gaining freedom through government action--the Confiscation Acts, Emancipation Proclamation, and Thirteenth Amendment--did not guarantee that they would be fairly treated. They therefore attempted to gain control of their lives through a vigorous affirmation of their rights. They began to record their antebellum marriages and normalize family relations, obtain an education, establish a base for economic prosperity, and participate in the political process. Through these actions they hoped to give true meaning to their freedom. Unfortunately, they were not always successful in their attempts.
Original Publication Citation
Hucles, M. (1992). Many voices, similar concerns: Traditional methods of African-American political activity in Norfolk, Virginia, 1865-1875. Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, 100(4), 543-566.
Hucles, Michael, "Many Voices, Similar Concerns: Traditional Methods of African-American Political Activity in Norfolk, Virginia, 1865-1875" (1992). History Faculty Publications. 2.