From 1918 to 1921, officials of the Italian government operating in the new Adriatic territories inherited from the Habsburg monarchy struggled to meet the needs of local populations in an atmosphere of economic dislocation, political unrest, and increasing ethnic violence. This article examines the evolution of Italian policies and practices relating to border crossings, repatriation, and citizenship in the dynamic period from Armistice to official annexation. Using archival records held in Trieste and Rome, it explores officials treatment of inhabitants of the new borderlands, migrants, and refugees in the transformation of Habsburg lands of the multi-ethnic empire to Italian provinces in the nationalist state in the context of treaties of the Paris Peace and subsequent agreements articulating political arrangements that affected the populations of Trieste, Fiume, Istria, and Dalmatia.
Original Publication Citation
Hametz, M. E. (2013). Uncertain states: Repatriation and citizenship in the Northeastern Adriatic, 1918-1921. Acta Histriae, 21(4), 791-808.
Hametz, Maura E., "Uncertain States: Repatriation and Citizenship in the Northeastern Adriatic, 1918-1921" (2013). History Faculty Publications. 37.